Formula 1 - terms and concepts

Formula 1, the Queen of racing, circus Maximus. She has many names, but the essence is one. This article is intended both for people far from Motorsport and Formula 1 in particular, and for the faithful fans of the Queen of Motorsport, who want to know more about your favorite sport. 

Many people watch car racing in Formula 1 for several years, but don't know what it is called Formula 1. To fix this, you need to understand what is behind this beautiful name. Define the term "F1" in the narrow and broad senses. 

In the narrow sense, Formula 1 – this is a set of technical standards, requirements and rules, under which organized and held the world championship of Formula 1. In charge of the adoption and modification of these rules of the international Automobile Federation – FIA. It is the main governing body of all Motorsport competitions in the world. By her rules first of which is aimed at ensuring the safety of pilots – participants in racing competitions, as well as spectators in the stands. In addition FIA aims of its existence, the development of Motorsport, so that the racing is not turned into a very expensive and exotic sports. 

In a broad sense, Formula 1 – this is the world championship auto racing, which is played annually and consists of stages – Grand Prix. At the end of each season, the winners are determined in individual and team standings. The rider, who won first place in the individual competition, is given the title of champion, and the team – the Cup of designers. 

called "F1" Championships are held from 1950 onwards, however, and prior to that he held regular Grand Prix, but was not a centralized system of scoring for stage victories. 

For the Formula 1 was fixed names "Queen of Motorsport’ or ‘Royal race.  This is because Formula 1 is considered the most prestigious racing series in the world and the pinnacle of their careers for most racers. Several reasons for this: 
1) the Highest level of technology in Formula 1, making it the cars fastest cars subject to the restrictions that are installed technical regulations;
2) The incredible high cost of Formula 1. The most successful teams annually spend hundreds of millions of dollars, a considerable percentage of the fees for racers, receiving millions and sometimes – tens of millions each year. 
3) world-wide popularity of Formula 1. Queen of Motorsport in the world, watched by millions of fans, and the track hosting the Grand Prix, collect hundreds of thousands of people. 

to understand how the Formula 1, it is useful to review the basic concepts that make up this sport. 

Calendar Formula 1

Calendar Formula 1 consists of a certain number stages – Grand Prix, held in various countries around the world. Typically, the championship consists of 16-19 stages. The first stage is traditionally held in March, and the last in October or November. 

the longest world championship consisted of 20 stages and took place in 2012 year, and the short – of the seven races were conducted twice, in 1950 and 1955. 

Calendar of the world championship Formula 1 FIA is made and published a year before the beginning of the season. The owners of the tracks personally enter into contracts with the leadership of the Formula 1 to host the Grand Prix. The adoption of the Grand Prix Formula 1 significantly increases the popularity and prestige of the circuit. 

Grand Prix Formula 1

For each stage of the championship may be submitted no more than two pilots from one team. During the season each team is allowed to use no more than four different pilots. 

All Grand Prix Formula 1 consists of certain parts – sessions: 
1) Free practice consists of three parts. Two of them are on Friday (Monaco – Thursday) and last for 1.5 hours, and one lasting 1 hour takes place on Saturday morning. These races are designed to prepare riders and teams for qualifying and the race – is the recce, car setup and the choice of strategy. 
2) Qualification - this type of race is designed to determine the starting positions of the pilots in the race. Under current rules, the qualification consists of three parts: on 20, 15 and 10 minutes. In the first part involves all the pilots, the second best 16 pilots, third – the top 10. The winner of the qualification is assigned pole position (pole position – this means that in the race he will start from the first place. 
3) Race - the final and most important stage of the Grand Prix. Traditionally held on Sunday. At the start of the race all racers line up at the start line in accordance with the results of the qualification and subject to all penalties. The average distance of the race is 300 kilometers, and the number of laps varies from 50 to 70, depending on the route length. The current sporting regulations it is forbidden to refuel the cars fuel during the race. All racers are required to make at least one pit stop, because the rules require that they used both types of rubber during the race. 

Tyres in Formula 1

Official supplier of tyres in Formula 1 is an Italian company Pirelli. In the season of 2014 Pirelli presented six different 
types of rubber
1) Hard (Hard) – is marked in orange. 
2) Medium (Medium) – is marked in white. 
3) Soft – is marked in yellow. 
4) super Soft (Super-soft) – is marked in red. 
5) Intermediate – is marked in green. 
6) Rain (Full wet) – marked in blue. 

On each individual Grand Prix allowed to use up to 4 types of rubber – intermediate and rainfall types are available on all Grand Prix, but added to these are two of the four dry types that Pirelli selects in advance.